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The Shenandoah Salamander is only found in the higher peak areas of the Shenandoah National Park in Virginia and its populations are encountered on three mountains - Hawksbill, Stony Man, and The Pinnacle. This small terrestrial creature was first recorded in 1967 and placed on the federal endangered species list in 1989. One of the main causes of concern is that they have a very restricted geographical range and potential threats to survival include acid rain deposition, and forest defoliation caused by exotic insects and fire.